Monthly Archives: December 2014

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Renewing my Namecheap SSL Certificate on Linode Apache2 Web Server

This post is something of a reminder to myself. How to renew a NameCheap Comodo SSL certificate on one of my Linode Apache2 web-servers. It’s something I only have to do every few years so I essentially have to re-learn the process every time which is rather tiring. This post will be here for my future self to make the process easier.

1. Renew the SSL Certificate on NameCheap

I use NameCheap for all my domain name registrations and SSL certificates. They have many different types of SSL certificates available from several different providers ranging from simple domain certificates right up to full wildcard organization based certificates. The great thing about any of them is that NameCheap will email you well in advance of them expiring. When they do so it’s simply a matter of logging into your NameCheap control panel and renewing the certificate. A new entry will be created with the status of “Waiting Activation”.

2. Create the CSR File

My host runs apache2 on Ubuntu and OpenSSL. Apache looks for certificates in /etc/apache2/ssl and I usually create a sub-folder for new CSR and key files when the old ones expire. I feel its a bit more secure to generate a new Certificate Signing Request (CSR) whenever a certificate expires, which is why I do this. So I create a folder for the files:

cd /etc/apache2/ssl
mkdir december-2014
cd december-2014

Then create a CSR file using:

openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -days 1095 -nodes -keyout -out

The openssl req command will then ask for some information to encode with the request. That looks something like this:

You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:AU
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:South Australia
Locality Name (eg, city) []:Adelaide
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:My Company Name
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []
Email Address []

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:My Company Name

This will create the CSR file ( and a SSL certificate key file ( The key needs to be protected with:

chmod 400

3. Issue the SSL Certificate via NameCheap

The contents of the CSR file are needed to issue the SSL certificate via the NameCheap control panel. View the contents with:


The contents will look something like this:


Copy the contents to the clipboard and go to your NameCheap control panel and select the SSL certificate to activate. Select the correct server configuration (in this case Apache2 + OpenSSL) and paste the contents of the CSR file into the CSR Text field and submit the activate request. NameCheap will then ask for an email address to confirm the issuing of the SSL certificate for the domain. Confirm the request and you’re done with NameCheap for this process.

4. Confirm the SSL Certificate Issue

The SSL certificate I renewed was a Comodo certificate and after a few seconds I got an email from Comodo asking me to confirm the issuing of a certificate. The email looked like this:

Comodo Confirm Issue SSL Certificate Email

Comodo Confirm Issue SSL Certificate Email

It’s simply a matter of clicking on the confirmation link in that email and pasting the “validation code” into a text box on the resultant web page. Once you’ve done that another email will arrive in a few minutes with a ZIP file attached. The zip file contains the following files:

Comodo SSL Files

Comodo SSL Files

The AddTrustExternalCARoot.crt is the CA (certificate authority) root certificate which identifies the company we’ve paid to issue the SSL certificate. In this case, Comodo via NameCheap. You’ll need that file. You’ll also need the www_mydomain_com.crt file which is the signed CSR.

5. Install and Protect Certificate File

Both files mentioned above need to be copied to the folder we created in step 1, namely:


Once there protect the signed crt file with:

chmod 400 www_mydomain_com.crt

6. Create the Certificate Bundle

To complete the SSL chain for Apache you must create a bundle with the files send by the certificate authority. This is done easily with:

cat AddTrustExternalCARoot.crt COMODORSAAddTrustCA.crt  COMODORSADomainValidationSecureServerCA.crt www_mydomain_com.crt >

7. Configure Apache to use New SSL Certificate

The last step in the process is to configure Apache to use the new SSL Certificate. Open up the site configuration file with:

nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/site-name.conf

In my case I looked for the SSL VirtualHost section of the file which looked like this:

    SSLEngine On
    SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/december-2011/www.mydomain_com.crt
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/december-2011/
    SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/december-2011/PositiveSSLCA.crt
    SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/apache2/ssl/december-2011/
    DocumentRoot /srv/www/public_html/
    ErrorLog /srv/www/logs/error.log
    CustomLog /srv/www/logs/access.log combined
    AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl

You can see that the SSLCertificateFile SSLCertificateKeyFile and SSLCACertificateFile directives need to be changed to use the new certificate files. I modified them to look like this:

    SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/december-2014/www_mydomain_com.crt
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/december-2014/
    SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/december-2014/AddTrustExternalCARoot.crt
    SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/apache2/ssl/december-2014/

Saved the file, exited Nano and then restarted Apache with:

service apache2 restart

8. Verify New Certificate is Installed

If you’ve done everything correctly it’s a simple matter of checking if the certificate is installed correctly. I did it by navigating to the website in Google Chrome and clicking on the https padlock icon and viewing the certificate information. It looked like the image below and you should see that the expiry date has updated correctly. Job done.

Success - SSL Certificate Installed

Success – SSL Certificate Installed

Visual Basic 6 – Disable Min Max Buttons and Movable Property at Run Time

Recently I had need to allow one of my old Visual Basic 6 applications to run in “kiosk mode”. That is, maximize the window to fill up the screen, disable the form Min button, Max Button, Close button, prevent form re-sizing, and form dragging. There are properties to allow this at design time (MinButton, MaxButton, Movable etc) but they cannot be modified at run-time. So the problem was to set these properties at run-time. There was a quite bit of information online about it but nothing that tied it all up. Here’s my solution.

Firstly, it’s all done via API calls so you need to define a number of those as follows.

Public Declare Function GetSystemMenu Lib "user32" (ByVal hwnd As Long, ByVal bRevert As Long) As Long
Public Declare Function DrawMenuBar Lib "user32" (ByVal hwnd As Long) As Long
Public Declare Function GetMenuItemCount Lib "user32" (ByVal hMenu As Long) As Long
Public Declare Function ModifyMenu Lib "user32" Alias "ModifyMenuA" (ByVal hMenu As Long, ByVal nPosition As Long, ByVal wFlags As Long, ByVal wIDNewItem As Long, ByVal lpString As Any) As Long
Public Declare Function GetMenuString Lib "user32" Alias "GetMenuStringA" (ByVal hMenu As Long, ByVal wIDItem As Long, ByVal lpString As String, ByVal nMaxCount As Long, ByVal wFlag As Long) As Long
Public Declare Function GetSubMenu Lib "user32" (ByVal hMenu As Long, ByVal nPos As Long) As Long

Public Const MF_BYPOSITION = &H400&
Public Const MF_GRAYED = &H1&

Here’s how you put a form in “Kiosk Mode”. This code gets a reference to the system menu of the current form. It then loops through each sub menu item of the system menu getting the menu caption, it then disables the sub menu using the ModifyMenu API call. This API requires you to pass a new caption to the disabled menu item, so we just pass the menu captions back to the ModifyMenu call.

  Dim hSysMenu As Long
  Dim lngCount As Long
  Dim lngLoop As Long
  Dim strName As String
  Dim lLength As Long
  Dim hSubMenu As Long
  Dim sSubMenuName As String
  'Get a reference to the system menu of the form
  hSysMenu = GetSystemMenu(Me.hWnd, False)
  'Set the border style to fixed dialog
  Me.BorderStyle = 3
  'Set window state to normal so we can re-size it
  Me.WindowState = 0
  'Set form width to screen width and position at top left of screen
  Me.Width = Screen.Width
  Me.Height = Screen.Height
  Me.Top = 0
  Me.Left = 0
  'If we got a reference to the system menu
  If hSysMenu Then
    lngCount = GetMenuItemCount(hSysMenu)
    'loop through each item in the system menu
    For lngLoop = 0 To lngCount
      sSubMenuName = Space(256)
      'get a reference to the sub menu
      hSubMenu = GetSubMenu(hSysMenu, lngLoop)
      'get the caption of the sub menu
      lLength = GetMenuString(hSysMenu, lngLoop, sSubMenuName, Len(sSubMenuName), MF_BYPOSITION)
      sSubMenuName = Left(sSubMenuName, lLength)
      'gray out (disable) the sub menu item
      ModifyMenu hSysMenu, lngLoop, MF_BYPOSITION Or MF_GRAYED, hSubMenu, sSubMenuName
    Next lngLoop
    'redraw the menu bar
    DrawMenuBar Me.hWnd
  End If

The result of this is a form fills up all the screen space, and while there are min/max/close buttons they do not actually do anything. Right clicking on the menu bar shows the form system menu but all items are disabled. The form cannot be be re-sized or dragged.

Of course you’re going to want to get the form out of kiosk mode. This is actually pretty simple, just use the GetSystemMenu call again but pass TRUE as the second parameter. Here’s what I mean:

      hSysMenu = GetSystemMenu(Me.hWnd, True)
      DrawMenuBar Me.hWnd
      Me.BorderStyle = 2

According to the API documentation the second parameter (bRevert) when set to true resets the window menu back to the default state. Which is exactly what we want!

There’s other ways to do this of course. For example, the RemoveMenu API call could be called to remove the sub menu items altogether and then restored as I have above. However my solution works fine and I am pretty happy with the result!